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Bác sĩ Long Cao giải thích và trình bày cách ngăn ngừa bệnh tim.

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Healthy Eating: Jump-starting your nutrition goals

A. Obesity Health Risks

1. Diabetes

2. Heart disease and stroke

3. Arthritis

4. High blood pressure

5. Sleep apnea

6. Erectile dysfunction

7. Infertility

8. Heartburn

9. Gallstones

10. Cancer—breast, uterine, colon, kidney, esophagus, pancreas . . .

B. Common excuses

1. Costfrozen instead of fresh veggies, home cooked meals instead of eating out, buy in bulk

2. Lack of knowledge/limited cooking skillsrecipe books and exchanges, internet; learn to read nutrition labels

3. Habits learned in childhoodsearch out new recipes, make an effort to learn new habits

4. Family members who do not want to change their dietinvolve them in meal planning and cooking, make favorite foods healthier (ex. Baked breaded chicken instead of fried chicken). Hide food with purees (cauliflower in mashed potatoes, carrots and bell peppers in tomato sauce, squash in cheese dishes).

5. Emotional eating and comfort foodsfind other outlets for stress (exercise, dancing/music, talking to friends, counseling, medication if needed)

C. Sample diets

1. Mediterranean: plant based, with fish, red wine, and fruit for dessert. Lower amounts or processed foods, red meat, dairy.

2. Weight Watchers: low fat diet. Point system to help balance good foods with bad ones.

3. South Beach: low carbohydrate, low glycemic index diet. Decreased carbs leads to lower insulin levels, and less hunger. Similar to a diabetic diet.

4. DASH: Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension. Fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy.

5. Take home: decrease processed foods and high carbohydrate intake; increase fruits, veggies, fish, and fiber. Specific books and programs are not needed if you can keep to these principles on your own. Avoid diet plans that are so limiting that you cannot sustain them for the long term.

D. Recommended supplements (if your diet lacks these nutrients)

1. Vitamin D

i. Benefits: decreased falls, decreased fracture. May decrease risk of heart disease, colon cancer, and depression.

ii. At risk if older than 65, dark skin (need 6x as much sunlight to make same amount of vitamin D), less exposure to the sun, obese, sedentary, or take steroids or seizure medicine.

iii. Signs of deficiency include low back pain, muscle aches and weakness, bone pain

iv. Found in dairy, salmon, sardines, tuna, sunlight

v. Recommended amount: 400-800 units daily

2. Calcium

i. Benefits: Decreased colon cancer risk, healthier weight

ii. Signs of deficiency include osteopenia/osteoporosis, tingling, muscle cramps

iii. Found in dairy, broccoli, dark leafy greens, sardines, tofu

iv. Recommended amount: 1000 mg

v. If you are lactose intolerant, drink lactose free, soy, or almond milk; or, get calcium from the other sources above.

3. Omega-3

i. Benefits: decreased risk of cardiac death in people with heart disease; improves triglycerides (cholesterol), decreases high blood pressure, helps with pain from rheumatoid arthritis. Reduces general inflammation and the tendency to clot throughout the body.

ii. Found in fatty fish (salmon, tuna), flaxseed, canola oil, walnuts

iii. Recommended amount: 2 servings fish/week or 1 gm daily if no known heart disease; 1 serving fish or 4 gm daily if known heart disease;

4. Fiber

i. Benefits: decreases blood sugar and cholesterol

ii. Signs of deficiency include constipation, irritable bowel

iii. Found in beans, whole grain, bran, fruits, veggies, oatmeal, popcorn

iv. Recommended amount: 20-30 gm daily

v. Supplements: powders, gummies, capsules

E. Nutrition quick tips

1. Use smaller plates, and dish food from the stove instead of the table. This can control portion sizes and reduce unnecessary second helpings.

2. Don’t drink your calories! Drink juice diluted with water, and avoid sugary juices, coffee drinks, and alcohol. Even Gatorade has a lot of sugar; avoid drinking daily if you do not exercise heavily.

3. Eat slowly so you’re body has time to tell if it is full.

4. Avoid eating while watching TV or movies, as you will inevitably eat more than you normally would.

5. Decrease salt intake and increase water intake to prevent bloating and fluid retention. Use seasonings, onions, peppers, etc to flavor food. Keep the salt shaker off the table.

6. Have a “free day” once a week where you eat as many calories as you wish—this keeps your metabolism up. If you restrict calories too much, your body goes into “starvation mode,” and you will be unable to lose additional weight.

7. Fiber and protein are filling. Eat a good amount with most meals.

8. Drink ½ glass of water before eating to decrease the amount of food you eat. Also, drink water when you crave a snack—you may be thirsty instead of hungry, as these signals are often confused.

9. Bring your own snacks and lunch to work, as cafeteria food and fast food is typically high in calories and low on nutrients.

10. Frozen fruits and vegetables are healthy, affordable, and easy to prepare.

F. Action items

1. Set clear goals, and act towards accomplishing them.

2. Have a partner, who is working towards the same goals and will keep you accountable.

Don’t expect different results if you are doing the same thing!

Margaret Umah, MD

Family Physician, OakBend Medical Group

22001 Southwest Freeway Ste 100

Richmond, Texas 77479

 


 


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